In the early stagings of the evolution of mankind, music was almost exclusively applied. Hence the “canonicity” of the musical style, the small expression in it of the individual author’s origin. In the professional work of mature musical cultures, music was gradually freed from direct dependence on the word, dance, ritual context. Since the late Middle Ages (the 15th century), and especially in the Renaissance in Europe, the forms of so-called autonomous music (according to G. Besseler “presented”, that is intended solely for listening) for the first time developed , the composer’s own logic of logic developed , the profession of the composer.
In the modern era (beginning with the Baroque era), the “applied” component continued to exist in the form of so-called program music, but in parallel, there were ideas of the “immanent essence” of music, one of the most popular in the XIX century – the idea of absolute music. In the creation of the avant-garde artists of the 20th century, the “autonomous” vector of the history of music reached its next culmination – the composers gave their compositions headlines that exclude any association with the usual genres and forms (for example, Webern’s Five Pieces for Orchestra, Boulez’s Structures, 2 “Ustvolskaya, etc.), or the headings attributed to the writings were purely conditional.
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It is assumed that the development of modern man occurred about 160 thousand years ago in Africa. About 50 thousand years ago, people settled all the habitable continents. Since all the people of the world, including the most isolated tribal groups, have some forms of music, historians had come to the conclusion that music should have been present with the first people in Africa, before they settled on the planet. It is assumed that after the show in Africa, music exists for at least 50 thousand years and gradually turned into an essential part of human life everywhere the planet.
Prehistoric, or primitive, it is customary to designate an oral musical tradition. Examples include American and Australian Aboriginal music. The prehistoric era in music ends with the transition to the recording of musical works. The age of the oldest known song, recorded on a cuneiform tablet and found on the excavations of Nippur, is estimated at about 4 thousand years[ source not specified 356 days].
One of the most ancient musical instruments recorded by scientists is the flute. In particular, a specimen of the flute was found next to the sculptures, which are attributed to 35-40 thousand years BC. e.
Music of ancient Egypt
On the cliffs of the pyramids, in ancient papyri, in the collections “Texts of the Pyramids” and “Book of the Dead,” there are lines of religious hymns. There are “passions” and “mysteries.” A popular story was the “passion” of Osiris, who died and resurrected annually, as well as female songs-lamentations over the dead Osiris. The performance of the songs could be accompanied by dramatic scenes.
Music played an important role in the life of the ancient Egyptians. The meaning of music in ancient Egypt is spoken by wall reliefs of ancient Egyptian temples and tombs depicting musicians. The ancient musical instruments of the Egyptians were a harp and a flute. During the New Kingdom period, the Egyptians played bells, tambourines, drums, and lyres imported from Asia. Rich people arranged receptions with the invitation of professional musicians.
Music of Ancient Greece
It is believed that it was in ancient Greece that music reached its climax in the culture of the Ancient World. The very word “music” is of ancient Greek origin. In ancient Greece, on very start, there was a regular connection between the height of sound and the number, the opening of which tradition attributes to Pythagoras. Music as a subject of education and upbringing and as a component of social life was of great importance for the Greeks and, in general, for the whole of the later European civilization.